Tinctures are alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions prepared from vegetable materials or from chemical substances. They vary in method of preparation, strength of the active ingredient, alcoholic content, and intended use in medicine or pharmacy. When they are prepared from chemical substances (e.g., iodine, thimerosal), tinctures are prepared by simple solution of the chemical agent in the solvent.
Depending on the preparation, tinctures contain alcohol in amounts ranging from approximately 15% to 80%. The alcohol content protects against microbial growth and keeps the alcohol-soluble extractives in solution. In addition to alcohol, other solvents, such as glycerin, may be employed. The solvent mix of each tincture is important in maintaining the integrity of the product. Tinctures cannot be mixed successfully with liquids too diverse in solvent character because the solute may precipitate. For example, compound benzoin tincture, prepared with alcohol as the sole menstruum, contains alcohol-soluble principles that are immediately precipitated from solution upon addition of water.
Because of the alcoholic content, tinctures must be tightly stoppered and not exposed to excessive temperatures. Also, because many of the constituents found in tinctures undergo a photochemical change upon exposure to light, many tinctures must be stored in light-resistant containers and protected from sunlight.
Medicated tinctures taken orally include Paregoric, USP, or camphorated tincture of opium. Usually, patients requiring oral medication nowadays prefer to take a tablet or capsule or a pleasant-tasting elixir or syrup. Tinctures have a rather high alcoholic content, and some physicians and patients alike prefer other forms of medication. Opium Tincture, USP, or laudanum, is much more potent than paregoric, and the two should not be confused. Any prescription for either one should be carefully evaluated and the dose checked and confirmed.