DRUG DOSAGE FORMS & DELIVERY SYSTEMS


Enemas

Retention Enema

A number of solutions are administered rectally for local effects (e.g., hydrocortisone) or for systemic absorption (e.g., aminophylline). In the case of aminophylline, rectal administration minimizes the undesirable gastrointestinal reactions associated with oral therapy. Clinically effective blood levels of the agents are usually obtained within 30 minutes following rectal instillation. Corticosteroids are administered as retention enemas or continuous drip as adjunctive treatment of some patients with ulcerative colitis.

Evacuation Enema

Rectal enemas are used to cleanse the bowel. Commercially, many enemas are available in disposable plastic squeeze bottles containing a premeasured amount of enema solution. The agents are solutions of sodium phosphate and sodium biphosphate, glycerin and docusate potassium, and light mineral oil. Instruction from a pharmacist is advantageous to ensure that the patient correctly uses these products. The patient should be advised to gently insert the tip of the product with steady pressure and be told that it is not absolutely necessary to squeeze all of the contents out of the disposable plastic bottle. The patient should be told that the product will most probably work within 5 to 10 minutes.