DRUG DOSAGE FORMS & DELIVERY SYSTEMS


Dental Solutions

A variety of medicinal substances are employed topically in the mouth for a number of purposes and in a wide range of dosage forms. Among the drugs and preparations included in this group are the following:

  • Benzocaine: Topical anesthetic. Indicated for temporary relief of pain, soreness, and irritation in the mouth associated with teething, orthodontic appliances, new or poorly fitting dentures, and canker sores.
  • Camphorated parachlorophenol: Dental antiinfective. A eutectic liquid composed of 65% camphor and 35% parachlorophenol, used in dentistry for sterilization of deep root canals.
  • Carbamide peroxide topical solution: Dental anti-infective. Acts as a chemomechanical cleansing and debriding agent through the release of bubbling oxygen. The commercial product (Gly-Oxide Liquid, GlaxoSmithKline) contains 10% carbamide in flavored anhydrous glycerin.
  • Cetylpyridinium chloride solution and cetylpyridinium chloride lozenges: Local antiinfective. Commercial counterparts (Cepacol Mouthwash/Gargle and Cepacol Lozenges) contain 1:2000 w/v and 1:1500 w/v of cetylpyridinium chloride, respectively. Used primarily as a freshening mouth cleanser. Lozenges have benzyl alcohol as a local anesthetic in soothing throat irritations.
  • Erythrosine sodium topical solution and erythrosine sodium soluble tablets: Diagnostic aid (dental disclosing agent). Solution applied to the teeth to reveal plaque left by inadequate brushing. Tablets chewed for the same purpose and are not to be swallowed.
  • Eugenol: Dental analgesic. Applied topically to dental cavities and dental protectives. Eugenol is a pale yellow liquid having an aromatic odor of clove and a spicy taste.
  • Lidocaine oral spray: Topical dental anesthetic. Applied through metered spray at 10 mg per spray; 20 mg per quadrant of gingiva and oral mucosa is usually employed (Xylocaine Oral Spray, AstraZeneca).
  • Nystatin oral suspension: Antifungal. May be employed for oral fungal infections by retaining in the mouth as long as possible before swallowing.
  • Saliva substitutes: Electrolytes in a carboxymethylcellulose base. They are indicated for relief of dry mouth and throat in xerostomia.
  • Sodium fluoride oral solution and sodium fluoride tablets: Dental caries prophylactic. Solution applied to the teeth; or when drinking water does not contain adequate fluoride, a dilute solution may be swallowed. Tablets containing sodium fluoride 1.1 or 2.2 mg are chewed or swallowed as required.
  • Sodium fluoride and phosphoric acid gel and sodium fluoride and phosphoric acid topical solution: Dental caries prophylactic. Gel and solution applied to the teeth; each contains 1.23% of fluoride ion and 1% of phosphoric acid. Triamcinolone acetonide dental paste: Topical anti-inflammatory agent. Applied to the oral mucous membranes as a 0.1% paste.
  • Zinc oxide–eugenol mixture: Temporary filling mix.