These are substances that add color and patterns to materials. It includes paint, pigments, and dye manufacturers with which products are primarily used in the textile industries.
Paints are “any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition designed for application to a substrate in a thin layer which is converted to an opaque solid film after application.” Pigments are “black, white, or colored inorganic substances produced and marketed as fine powders” used to create color or opacity in coatings such as paint, or as additives to inks, plastics, rubber, or paper. Dyes are generally soluble organic compounds used as colorants, primarily in the textile industry. The commercial history of these coatings and colorants is one of the greatest success stories of the chemical industry.
It is important for the manufacturer and operators to consider all chemicals used in the process. Paints and paint pigments can involve toxic materials and heavy metal compounds, such as lead, arsenic and chromium some of which may require PPE and may need to be disposed of properly. The manufacture, application and handling of paints often involves solvents, such as thinners, mineral spirits or turpentine which emits volatile and hazardous pollutants.
Through the years, air pollution regulations will continue to be a driving force behind the adoption of new coating technologies. Despite the relatively slow growth in demand anticipated for coatings overall, waterborne and high-solids coatings, powders, UV curables, and two-component systems appear to have good growth prospects.
In general, environmental regulations are becoming more stringent in all regions to limit emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), not only in the industrialized world, but also in developing countries. With this, new technologies and containment methods are being utilized and considered.