The concept of biocontainment is related to laboratory biosafety and to microbiology laboratories. This usually involves the provision of a physical containment (biologically secure cabinets or rooms of extremely pathogenic organisms like bacteria, viruses, and even toxins). The primary purpose of such is to prevent unintentional infection of personnel or discharge into the immediate workspace during scientific research.

Primary containment is the main container that is in direct contact with a biohazardous material; it also serves as protection of personnel and the immediate laboratory environment from contact with infectious agents. The use of proper storage containers, good microbiological technique, and the practice of suitable safety equipment such as biological safety cabinets are required.

Secondary containment is the safety provision of the environment external to the laboratory from exposure to infectious materials. This involves a combination of facility design and operational practices.